Instituto de Políticas y Bienes Públicos (IPP) CSIC, Working Paper 2005-07
Laura Cruz-Castro & Luis Sanz-Menéndez
Labour markets for research are changing and the traditional segmentation model of the research labour market where the doctorate was mainly valuable in the academic sector is loosing ground. The paper studies a sample of PhDs and their corresponding employing firms to analyse patterns of mobility, economic returns, and innovation outputs. Qualitative and quantitative indicators are combined to tackle two sets of general questions: The first relates to the incentives for doctorate holders to pursue a company career versus an academic career. The second concerns...
Instituto de Políticas y Bienes Públicos (IPP) CSIC, Working Paper 2005-06
Francisco Javier Moreno Fuentes
The underground economy represents a significant percentage of the Spanish economy, and the employment of undocumented migrants constitutes a large share of its supply of labour. This fact has functioned as an important pulling effect for the arrival of migrants into Spain over the last two decades, but especially during the last five years. Within their general strategy to fight against the underground economy, Spanish authorities have periodically used regularisation of undocumented migrants as a mechanism for emerging the irregular employment. In this vein, a...
Instituto de Políticas y Bienes Públicos (IPP) CSIC, Working Paper 2005-04
In modern political science, repeated elections are considered as the main mechanism of electoral accountability in democracies. More rarely, elections are considered as ways to select “good types” of politicians. In this article it is argued that historical republican authors interpreted elections in this last sense. They view elections as a means to select what they often called the “natural aristocracy”, virtuous political leaders that would pursue the common good. This argument is presented in three steps. First, it is claimed that republican authors did not...
Instituto de Políticas y Bienes Públicos (IPP) CSIC, Working Paper 2005-03
Eloísa del Pino
En los últimos años parece que las presiones para la reforma del Estado de Bienestar están siendo más insistentes que una opinión pública hasta ahora opuesta a cualquier tipo de recorte de los programas sociales. Algunos estudios sugieren que los gobiernos parecen haber aprendido como esquivar la resistencia de los ciudadanos a las reformas aprovechando un supuesto cambio en sus actitudes durante los últimos años. Con esta hipótesis de cambio en las actitudes ciudadanas se exploran en este trabajo las preferencias de los españoles hacia el proceso y los...
Instituto de Políticas y Bienes Públicos (IPP) CSIC, Working Paper 2005-02
At the beginning of the 21 st century, national state identities are openly questioned and have become problematic. While being corroded by the forces of globalization they are also subject to fragmentation, competition and overlapping elements of a multiple and diverse nature. In parallel, there is a noticeable strengthening of sub- and supra-state identities. The revival of ethnoterritorial identities has coincided with an increasing challenge to the centralist model of the unitary state. In plural polities,...
Instituto de Políticas y Bienes Públicos (IPP) CSIC, Working Paper 2004-15
Clara E. García & Luis Sanz-Menéndez
Research quality is the cornerstone of modern science, it aids in the understanding of reputational differences among scientific and academic institutions. Traditionally, scientific activity is measured by a set of indicators and well-established bibliometric techniques bases on the number of academic papers published in top-ranked journals or on the number of citations of these papers. These indicators are usually critical in measuring differences in research performance, both at individual and at scientific institutional levels. In this paper, we introduce an...
Instituto de Políticas y Bienes Públicos (IPP) CSIC, Working Paper 2004-14
Laura Cruz-Castro & Luis Sanz-Menéndez
This article analyses a government policy initiative that aimed to increase the number of researchers in the public research sector working in conditions equivalent to the tenure track, and to cope with the problems of employability, stabilisation and working conditions of PhDs. The paper describes the situation of science and technology (S&T) human resources in the context of Spanish research policy and explains the mechanisms by which policy-makers link problems and solutions in the context of a policy sequence, by analysing a case that deals with Spain’s...