Instituto de Políticas y Bienes Públicos (IPP) CSIC, Working Paper. 2015-07
Some weeks after the referendum on independence was held in Scotland, Catalonia’s institutions of self-government promoted the celebration of a similar consultation. Despite that it was declared illegal by the Spanish Constitutional Court, the Catalan Generalitat went ahead with the idea of organizing a public consult, which finally took place ‘informally’ on November 9. A majority of 80 per cent of those who participated in the consult voted for secession (‘Yes’ to both submitted questions to the electorate on self-dtermination).Turnout was around 37 per cent of the registered voters...
Instituto de Políticas y Bienes Públicos (IPP) CSIC, Working Paper. 2015-06
Pablo Campos, Paola Ovando, Bruno Mesa & Jose L. Oviedo
La renta ambiental representa la contribución natural de los ecosistemas a los valores de los productos que aportan sus múltiples actividades económicas. La estimación de la renta ambiental se realiza para cada uno de los activos ambientales de los ecosistemas, siendo el consumo por los animales del pasto natural la fuente de una de sus rentas ambientales. La actividad silvopascícola ha dado origen a la rica variedad genética animal y cultural de la ganadería extensiva en los ecosistemas agroforestales mediterráneos. La ganadería extensiva añade, a su oferta de bienes y servicios...
Instituto de Políticas y Bienes Públicos (IPP) CSIC, Working Paper. 2015-05
Paola Ovando, Alejandro Caparros, Luis Díaz-Balteiro, María Pasalodos, Santiago Beguería, José L. Oviedo, Gregorio Montero & Pablo Campos
We develop a model that estimates spatially-allocated environmental asset values for the simultaneous provision of seven ecosystem services. We examine the effect of heterogeneous spatial and economic factors on the environmental asset figures, at the same time we identify potential forestry abandonment problems when continuing with forestry activity is unprofitable for the landowner. Our results show a relevant spatial variability that depends on heterogeneous biophysical factors, such as forest species distribution and structure. We examine the likely trade-offs between forestry...
Instituto de Políticas y Bienes Públicos (IPP) CSIC, Working Paper 2015-04
Jose L. Oviedo, Alejandro Caparrós, Itziar Ruiz-Gauna & Pablo Campos
We perform two convergent validity tests in a choice experiment applied to public recreation in Stone pine and Cork oak forests in Spain. We compare choice and ranking recoded as a choice in an experiment with three alternatives plus status quo. Our results show convergent validity for both structural models and willingness to pay estimates. The same experiment includes two payment-vehicles, an entrance-fee to access the forest and an increase in trip-expenditures due to an increase in gas prices, simultaneously in the choice sets. We obtain significant differences in willingness to pay...
Instituto de Políticas y Bienes Públicos (IPP) CSIC, Working Paper 2015-03
Desiderio Romero-Jordán, Pablo Del Río & Cristina Peñasco
The deep economic crisis and the sharp rise in electricity prices have had a strong effect on electricity demand by Spanish households. This paper aims to analyse the responsiveness of household electricity demand and the welfare effects related to both factors in the 2006-2012 period. The results show that the electricity consumption of medium-high income households is particularly responsive to price increases, whereas that of medium-low income households is more responsive to changes in income. The retail electricity price increases and the economic crisis have led to generally lower...
Instituto de Políticas y Bienes Públicos (IPP) CSIC, Working Paper 2015-02
José L. Oviedo, Lynn Huntsinger & Pablo Campos
We integrate data from commercial operations, non-market private amenities and capital gains to measure landowner income and profitability in six oak woodland case studies from Spain and California. Results show that private amenities make the greatest contribution to landowner income, while commercial benefits alone fall short of explaining land prices. We also estimate landowner self-employed labor income, but its contribution is marginal. Total real profitability ranges from 3.2 to 7.8% in the Spanish cases and from 6.0 to 9.3% in the California cases, showing that these oak woodlands...
Instituto de Políticas y Bienes Públicos (IPP) CSIC, Working Paper 2015-01
Paola Ovando, José L. Oviedo & Pablo Campos
We estimate the total social income delivered by a simulated Stone pine ( Pinus pinea L.) afforestation investment in Huelva province, Spain. We consider the following private and public products: timber, pinecones, forestry conservation services, landowner amenities, landscape conservation, public recreation and carbon sequestration services. We show how total income of each single product is distributed into the partial rewards to labor and to environmental and manufactured assets. Results demonstrate that private income accounts on average for 46% of the total social income over the...
Instituto de Políticas y Bienes Públicos (IPP) CSIC, Working Paper 2014-02
Matthijs den Besten, Catalina Martínez, Nicolas Besson, Stéphane Maraut & Jean-Michel Dalle
In this article, we focus on the need for “human computing” in data-rich ecosystems, notably as a consequence of data variety and typically for name disambiguation, and explore ways to manage it via online platforms for paid crowdsourcing. Based on several studies of Amazon Mechanical Turk, a well-established platform for matching data treatment tasks to human beings willing to carry them out, we illustrate the difficulties involved as requesters compete for the attention of workers. We suggest that researchers should shift from a technical analysis and tentative resolution of human...
Instituto de Políticas y Bienes Públicos (IPP) CSIC, Working Paper 2014-01
José L. Oviedo & Alejandro Caparrós
We compare contingent valuation and choice modeling with field and eye-tracker data. Contrary to previous research, results yield significantly different structural models. These divergences remain for modified formats that minimize visual and cognitive differences between formats. We also find divergent results concerning information processing. In choice modeling, respondents devote more time to attributes, including the bid, although total answering time does not vary. Presenting several questions with varying attribute levels works for choice modeling but not for contingent valuation....
Instituto de Políticas y Bienes Públicos (IPP) CSIC, Working Paper 2013-03
José L. Oviedo & Alejandro Caparrós
We investigate transitions among crop, grass and forest land uses in Andalusia (Spain) through an econometric model that uses individual land use decisions observed in the Corine Land Cover database as dependent variable, and net income, subsidies and biophysical and environmental factors as explanatory variables. Using multinomial logit models (fixed and random parameters), we identify both monetary and environmental and biophysical variables as significant in explaining land use decisions, but model performance significantly improves with the latter variables. We also identify the role...